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Growing and Caring for a ZZ Plant – An Essential Guide

a ZZ plant in a wicker basket

With their eye-catching structured foliage and nearly indestructible nature, ZZ plants make fantastic and easy-going houseplants. Their ability to thrive in a wide range of conditions makes them ideal for beginners or forgetful plant parents.

Read on for a comprehensive guide to growing and caring for the resilient ZZ plant.

An Introduction to ZZ Plants

ZZ plants (Zamioculcas zamiifolia) are native to Eastern Africa and get their unusual name from their botanical name which is a mouthful to pronounce. They are sometimes called Zanzibar Gem, Aroid Palm, or Zuzu plant.

ZZ plants grow in a bulbous, tuberous rhizome structure with stout, succulent stems that can reach several feet in length. With its thick, waxy leaves that emerge from tuberous rhizomes underground, it has an exotic look but is actually one of the easiest indoor plants to grow.

It tolerates a wide range of light and watering conditions, making it an excellent choice for beginners or anyone looking for a low-maintenance houseplant.

ZZ plant varieties include the regular Z. zamiifolia as well as cultivars such as ‘Zenzi’, which has curled leaves, and ‘Raven’, which has very dark purple-black foliage.

zz plant on a table

The Benefits of Growing ZZ Plants

It is not just a hardy houseplant; it’s also an attractive addition to any interior design. Its glossy leaves and upright growth habit make it an excellent choice for modern, minimalistic, or tropical-themed decors.

You can use it as a standalone piece in a room corner or group it with other plants for a varied green display.

How to Grow ZZ Plants

a ZZ plant in a grey planter

While ZZ plants are tolerant of a range of conditions, they thrive best under certain settings.

Light Requirements

One of the reasons these plants thrive indoors is their ability to tolerate a wide range of light conditions. They can grow in bright light, partial shade, or even tolerate low-light spots in the home.

For best results, place ZZ plants in a spot that receives medium or bright indirect light. East or west-facing windows are ideal. Provide at least 4 hours of sunlight per day. In lower light, the plant will grow slower but can still do well. Avoid direct southern exposure, which can scorch the leaves.

If the leaves start to yellow or brown, it means the plant needs more sunlight. Leaves that become elongated indicate the plant is searching for light and should be moved to a brighter area.

Watering and Soil

Proper watering is important but fortunately, they are quite forgiving if occasionally under or over-watered. Here are tips for watering:

  • Allow soil to partially dry out between waterings. Check the top few inches of soil before watering and water when it becomes dry.
  • Water thoroughly until it drains from the bottom, then do not water again until the top several inches become dry.
  • Water less in winter when growth slows. The plant may only need water every 3-4 weeks in colder months.
  • Use pebbles in the bottom of the planter to improve drainage. They do not like soggy or waterlogged soil.
  • If leaves start to yellow and drop, it usually indicates overwatering. Allow the soil to dry out before resuming a normal watering schedule.

ZZ plants should be repotted every 2-3 years in a pot one size larger. Use a general purpose potting mix and replenish the soil annually with compost or worm castings to provide nutrients.


Feed with a balanced, water-soluble fertilizer every 6-8 weeks during the growing season. Reduce fertilizer in fall and winter when growth slows.

Temperature and Humidity

ZZ plants prefer warm temperatures between 60-90°F and do best in average home and office conditions. Avoid placing the plant in drafty areas or allowing it to get too cold.

These tropical plants also appreciate moderate humidity. In dry air, mist the leaves occasionally to increase moisture. Putting the pot on a pebble tray with water is another easy way to boost humidity.

Pruning ZZ Plants

They require very little pruning. Remove yellow or dying leaves at the base to keep the plant looking tidy. If the stems become overly long and leggy, cut them back to reshape the plant.

Prune off stems damaged by pests or disease using sterilized scissors or shears. Make cuts just above leaf nodes. ZZ plants rarely need repotting or root pruning.

Propagation of ZZ Plants

a ZZ plant on a side board in a living room

The best and easiest way to propagate ZZ plants is through rhizome division. Carefully remove the plant from its pot and use your hands to gently divide the tuberous rhizomes into sections, making sure each division has leaves and roots attached.

  1. Leaf Cuttings: Place a leaf cutting in water or soil. It can take a few months for roots and a rhizome to develop.
  2. Division: During repotting, gently separate the rhizomes and plant them in separate pots.

Tips for Caring for ZZ Plants

During winter months, the ZZ plant’s growth slows down. Reduce watering, avoid fertilizing, and keep the plant away from cold windows. This dormant period is crucial for the plant’s health.

ZZ plants grow relatively slowly, but they will eventually need repotting:

  1. When to Repot: Repotting every 2-3 years is typically sufficient. Signs that your plant needs repotting include crowded roots or slowed growth.
  2. Repotting Process: Choose a pot that is one size larger. Gently remove the plant, untangle roots if necessary, and replant in fresh potting mix.

Troubleshooting Common Problems

a ZZ plant on a windowsill

Despite its hardiness, the ZZ plant can encounter a few issues:

  1. Yellowing Leaves: Overwatering is the usual cause. Ensure proper drainage and let the soil dry out between waterings.
  2. Brown Spots or Edges: This can indicate underwatering or too much direct sunlight. Adjust your watering schedule and relocate the plant if necessary.
  3. Leaf drooping: Results from under watering. Give the plant a thorough soak allowing water to drain out the bottom.
  4. Small leaves: Indicates insufficient light. Move the plant to a brighter location.
  5. Pests: ZZ plants can occasionally attract pests like aphids or spider mites. Treat infestations promptly with insecticidal soap or neem oil.
  6. Leggy growth: Cut back long stems and situate plant in brighter light.
  7. Root rot: Caused by soggy soil. Repot in fresh mix and do not over water.

Safety Considerations

The ZZ plant is toxic if ingested, so keep it out of reach of pets and children. Handle with care, as its sap can cause skin irritation.

With the proper care, ZZ plants can live for many years and grow quite large. Their unique tropical look and near indestructible nature make them a great low maintenance option to add visual interest to indoor spaces. Follow this guide for growing healthy and vibrant ZZ plants that thrive for years to come.

How fast do ZZ Plants grow?

  • ZZ Plants are slow-growing. They may only add a few new leaves each year, especially when grown in low-light conditions.

Is the ZZ Plant air-purifying?

  • Yes, the ZZ Plant is known for its air-purifying qualities. It can help remove pollutants like xylene, toluene, and benzene from the air.

Why are my ZZ Plant’s leaves turning brown?

  • Brown leaves can be a sign of underwatering, too much direct sunlight, or a pest problem. Adjust your watering schedule, move your plant to a location with indirect light, and check for pests.
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